Monday, March 31, 2008

I have been typing these pages on my computer, and when I send them to this blog page, they are in the 5 paragraphs that I put them on. But when i send them in to be on the blog page, they loose their paragraphs. I don't know why and I am sorry professor, they are all in 5 paragraphs.

HistoricalClothing of Africa

I got some good information from "Notes in Islamic Clothing", Carradocis Miscellany: Notes on Islamic Clothing. The material of their outfits was mainly made of silk. Their shirts and Camus is made of linen found with silk. Robes with tight and loose sleeves; the loose sleeves are short sleaved. The tight sleaved ro, in the early ages, would have sleeves inches llonger thatn their arms. Period pictures show maybe a jacket was worn, and it was open in front with sleeves trimmed in fur. The warb, worn in the Fatimid period, so Mayer says, are beaded in tune with straight slit. Muslim Spain had particolored robes. You can normallty see the slits or buttons on their clothing. There were Turbans worn from the 12th century Egypt. The width's of these were 35 to 48 cms. Non-Muslim were restricted to maximum turban lengths, which maybe meant that the Muslims would wear longer turbans.
Period pictures of Islamic garnets have ornamental bands on the sleeves, triaz bands, which have Arabic inscription with associated decoration. These had cloth worn for the rulers own use. These robes were given away out of generosity. Some wore belts which showed they were ritch. Then the Sultan wore white garmets for the summer which started in May. And then they wore woolen ones in November on until May.
Footware was Khuff boot, long leather stockings with vertuical seams up the sides. The women wore a chemise under a garmet and pants under it. Mameluke women wore Khuff bootts with low shoe outdoors. Red trousers worn on women were signs that they were prostitutes.
So this is basically what they wore for many centuries in Africa. There are still some that will wear this type of clothing. They try to keep their heritage going. They had very fancy and beautiful garmets that they would at times put much brightness and jewels on.

Slaves S

I found just another bit of information on the slaves and when they started. I looked into the Wikipedia page on African Salve Trade. I also went to teh site African Values in the Smithsonian Natural History Web: African Voices. When the slavery started out many centuries ago, peole were put in shekles and forced to aboard ships that were very, very small. Around the 1400's is when this was going on too prett heavily. Europeans colonized to America wheer they had enslaved labor for their mines and plantations. These Africans were brought over in the thousands to be traded off for money, or coins. There was much talk to the African elites to purchase these slaves. These slaves were taken as prisoners of African wars or caught in European-led expeditions. Millions of these slaves fopught for freedom, and weren't able to acheive it. These slaves were vorught from Sahara, tying in to the Arabs slave trade. Then it was just natural to see asalves all over and to be traded and bought. Even though it was illlegal, it was popular all over the world to have slaves, even in Africa itself.There were about 4 million fromthe Red sea, and 4 million through Swahili ports of Indian Ocean. 9 million were brought from trans- aharan route, and 11-13 million from Atlantic Ocean. These people later on were not enslaved for life. They were able to buy themselves out of slavery and even get social promotion. They was also marriage between captor and captive.
There were between 1 million to 1.25 million Europeans captured by Barbary pirates and sold as slaves to N. Africa and Ottomen Empire between the 16 to 19 centuries.
Women were also very sexually abused when they were slaves. They were forced to have sex with their "owners" wenenver the other demanded it. So it was very devasating to see all of the punishment that went on with these people's lives and how they were taken from all of thes different areas and treated as animals.

Friday, March 14, 2008

HIV in Africa

African Cultures
Spring 2008
Professor Mullins
Michelle Ludwig

I found the fight of Aids/HIV in Africa very sad and devastating-just like here in the United States. I found this article on the online page “Focus the Guardian”. The title of the page is “How Legislation can Curb Discrimination Against PLWHA”. this is the discussion of the Aids/HIV virus in Africa and how people are being treated and the need to pass a Bill to stop these people from treating the victims so bad. I find these tragedies very sad and hard to understand how individuals can be so cruel to others.

The Aids/HIV virus is spreading very quickly through Africa. So many people are being affected by this brutal disease. And just like in the United States, many people are accidentally infected with this illness. Now unprotecte4d sex is a huge contributing factor to the reasons that people are being infected with this disease, but someone can also just accidentally touch someone that has Aids/HIV on one of their open cuts with one of their one and they are now most likely infected! Or there are so many other reasons that can cause them to become infected. There is a young woman from Africa that was infected with the virus. Her young son was teased and ridiculed at school and even informed from his teacher that his mom will die soon from this illness. Why do they all need to be so cruel to this woman and her son? She feels that she is totally looked down upon, like she is just a failure in life and has no right to be here. She has a degree and was successful in life, like many others. She has no right to be made fun of, or pushed aside and not to be treated like the others.

The Federal Government is facilitating a bill in National Assembly to get rid of all forms of discrimination. They want to protect human rights and keep privacy on people with Aids/HIV. They should not be seeing any forms of discrimination or stigma at work or any other societal interactions. There are many posters talking of these people that are infected, and it is making them all look very bad. Azimzi from the National Rights Human Rights Commission feels that if it becomes known of these people being infected, that these individuals would be less to care of others and actually intentionally infect other people with this disease. It has been known for people to be thrown out of homes and not allowed in social events because of their illness. Alimazia feels that to pass the Bill, it would have to be presented to the National Assembly and upgrading of NACA into an agency. Some civil society groups feel that all of this may not keep against Aids/HIV. It ahs been said that the Bill has left the office of the Secretary to the Government of the Federation to the Ministry of Justice where it has been submitted to the federal Executive Council to be approved.

hey are trying really hard to make the life a little easier for these people with Aids/HIV. They are trying to pass laws to help stop the discrimination and stigmatization against these people. Hopefully they will help people understand that these people that are infected are all people like the rest of us and they are not any different than the rest of us. Until then, people will still be cruel to these humans and they won’t all have a nice “normal” life.

"What I am"

African Cultures
Spring 2008
Professor Mullins
Michelle Ludwig

Well I found an article on the Africans coming here to the U.S. to take college classes. We will shortly discuss the way it is here for them somewhat and a few of the differences of there schools in Africa. I found this information on the Daily Utah Chronicle, “Group Promotes African Culture” by Jamie Winston. The artuicle was put out on the paper February 16, 2008, but she wrote uit September 28, 2007.

Many college students come here to the United States to learn and get their college degrees. They want to see how things are here-like the living, and ways they deal and feel on different ideas.The African Student Union assists stuents when they come here to the United States. When they arrive here, they are transported from the airport and they are then taken to homes near the campus. They stay with families that are there and willing to help them. There are many students form all over Africa like Burundi, Somalia, and Sudian.

It is really hard to make change in community settings. One person from Africa said that in Africa said that general attitudes there are based around community and Americans general attitudes are individualistic. The cololeges are all so different in their ideas and ways to handle and teach things.

There are also ambassadors invited over here from Niagria and South Africa. They are over here to come to guest lectures. It can also be very hard for an African that is over here in school to see another of their blacks/ Africans on the campus there. It is said that it can be many days if not months before they will see another of their kind.