Saturday, April 19, 2008

Gangs in S. Africa

As I read- S. Africa Gang Culture in Cape Town, I learned of the gang life going on in this area of A. Africa. Cape Town has counseling helping to change life of thousands of gangsters in Cape Town. These gangs have rituals of killing people and raping them to become involved in the gangs. One of the gangs s Thug Life Gang. This one is well known for making crystal methamhetamine concoction known as tik. It makes their customers aggressive and fearless. It is a drug that last for 3-4 hours. It sounds like meth that is used here in the U.S.
These gang members get sent to jail , it is the way of life there. There family arcestors for generations before were also involved in these gangs.
these gangs have been there since after the second world war. Only 23% patients in rehab used this drug, and now there is 37%.
There were 2187 children under 18 incarcerated in S. Africa prison, 1109 waiting trial , and 1073 serving sentences in the prisons there in Africa. They feel that the people at the bottom or the top of the gangs and when they are caught are not needed to be helped as much as the ones that are in the middle. They are trying to help all of these people get out of the gang life, but that is obviously not possible. So we see how there are gangs all over the world, even in S. Africa.

Friday, April 18, 2008

Sex Abuse

This article came from Sexuakl Abuse and Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa. It discusses the amount of sexual abuse going on there. Also it talks of all of the mutilation that happens to these women.
They have sexual exploitation and/or female genital mutilation going on in these unsafe and unprotected countries.
Violence against women is a major problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. 46% of Urganda women, 60% of Tanzanian women, 42% of Kengan and 40% of Zambian women get this physical abuse all of the time. 81% of the Nigerian women are abused by their husbands and about 46 % of this occurs in front of their children. Violence has 5% of healthy years taken away from these abused women's lives. And it is also very psychologically damaging to them. 1 out of 4 of these people commit suicide. The children are also drastically affected by viewing this abuse.
30% of girls say how their first sexual experience was forced on them. 1/3 of adolescents that are gettng abortions were impregnated by men at least 45 years old or older. In N. Ethiopia the age of marriage tends to start at 13.5 for girls and 19.5 for boys.
85-114 million girls have had female genital cutting (mutilation) done to them. They cut the external genital to closing and the genital area, leaving small opening for passing urine and menstrual flow. Many of these girls die from this brutal procedure because of not having the right medication and other reasons. Ghana is the only country that prohibits this being done.
It is just horrible hearing of these terrible circumstances happening to these women, and then to know that there is little laws to protect them form this happening. And they do such horrid things to these women. Maybe someday it will change, but it most likely won't for a long time, if ever.

Africans Holidays

I got this artuicle from South Africas National Holidays.

Even Africa has a few holidays to celebrate . And all for very good reasons.After Apartheid and Congress leader Nelson Mandela came in South Africa since 1994, holidays have been known to all.
This is their vacations.---
March 21- Human rights day is one step to make sure people of S. Africa know human rights and make sure abuse doesn't happen like it had in 1969 when police killed 69 people in Sharpearville that were in protest against pass laws.
April 27- in 1994 the first democratic election allowed all adults to vote and in 1997 new constitution came.
May 1- Workers Day is a day to protest better wages --it is somewhat suprising that they still do it, because of the unions there.
June 16-Youth Day- June 1976 is for honner of the young people that lost their lives in the struggle against Apartheid and Banta education in their schools.
August 5-- National Womens Day. 1956 , 20,000 women marched to the Union Buildings in Pretoria against law of making black women carry passes. Celebrate all women acheivements and rights and difficulities women face.
September 24- Heritaeg Day- Nelson Mandela " Rainbow nation" for S. Africans diverse cultures, customs, history, and language.
December 16-- Day of Reconciliation- the day of vow for the day in 1838 Vootrtrekkers defeated a Zulu army at Battle of Blood River. It is to look at them overcoming conflicts of past and building new nation.
So it is seen that they do get to celebrate all of the acheivements in their country and the things that do bring happiness to people in their country.

Africans Diet

I got this from and article saying the Diets of Africans - Nutrition and Wellbeing

This was an article about the AFricans when they origionated and what they ate. They fuirst started out from apes, like all humans. It is felt that the selection pressureled to the bipedapism which was becaus eof the food that was found underground, like potatoes. One of the most fertile centers of Africa was Nile Valley. They had lots of fish and animals and plants to eat there. But in the dryer areas, like Sahara, after 6000BCE, tribes had cattle , goats, or sheep. They got cereals and tubers (yams). Spices and other foods were introduced into their culture.
Now they usually have vegetables, legunes, and some meat. But they are not able to eat much meat because it is not easily available because of economic constrants. Fish is quite popular though.They do put a bit of meat in the stews and foods for taste. They combine the foods and make stews, soups, and sauce.
They now also have rice, banannas, dates, melons, pineapple, cashews, and a few other fruits.They also are able to have flat bread. They did have a major familne in the late 1900's And there are still so many places that are very low on finding food, and food is much different than we have here. Food here in the United States is very available for almost all people, but over there in Africa they have a scarce suppley of many different types of the food that they are ablt to get for themselves and family.

Saturday, April 12, 2008

Diabetis in African Americana

In the article , Diabetis Deadly for African Americans by Drancir Semaj, they discuss the deadly diseases of Diabetis on African Americans. It is the fifth cause of death to them and death rates are 27 % higher than whites.
Over 2.8 million African Americans have diabetis and 1/3 of them don't even know it! 25% of African Americans between 65 to 74 years of age have it and 1 in 4 African American women over 55 years of age have it.
People beleive genetics and environmental factors cause this disease. Also hereditary is a big factor. It is felt that African Americans have inherited a \" thrifty gene"\ from African ancestors and that is a big reason they get the diabetis. That gene may have helped people in the past with the use of food as energy in the days of famine and starvation. It obviously is not needed as much in African Americans because there is not nearly as much fasting or starvetion occuring. Genetic predisposition with impaired glucose tolerance is towards higher blood pressure, so they are higher to get diabetis.
It is sugar diabetis when the body is not able to produce or use insulin. It is needed to process sugar.
5 to 10% of the African Americans have type 1 of juvinele -onset diabetis. And 90-95% of African Americans have type II diabetis or adult onset diabetis. Also they are twice as likely to suffer from diabetis related blindness-"Diabetic Retinopathy".
So this is the fifth leading cause of death and the second leading cause of end stage kidney disease in African Americans.
So we can see with this that Diabetis is a much more deadly disease for African Americans than the whites are effected. It is terribly sad to see and hopefuly in time they are able to be able to change this terrible situation for the African Americans

Sunday, April 6, 2008


masks can be found to go way back past Paleolithic times. All made out of leather, metal, fabric and many kinds of wood. . They are amongst teh best creations in the art world. They are also wanted by art collectors. They can be found in museums annd art galleries.
They are used during celebrations, initiations, crop harvesting, war peace and trouble times. They are worn by a few chosen or initiated dancers. They can be worn in three different ways-vertically covering the faces, as helmets, enhancing the entire head , and as crest, resting upon ther head. They represent the spirit of ancestors. They are also ritual ceremonies , spirits of ancestors, mythological beings, good or evil, the dead, animal spirits, and other 's beleived to have power. Masks pf human are a family pride, because they are representing the spirits of a loved one.
During the dances, the dancer goes into a deep trance, and at this time they communicate with the dead. Someetimes these dancers will" become" the spirit they are visiting. They bring messages form the deceased person. They are just many times grunted and the person will say what they mean. These rituals are always followed by dances and songs and music.
These dances and ceremonies are still going on even now. Most of the peopel have lost some tribal idenity and culture, so ceremonies are not as common as they once were-hence the masks aren't worn nearly as much.
There are many masks that are still being made and they are being more for fun and a historical thing. They are being made for museums and people to admire. They are a beautiful thing to have and they are fun to see and know the history of. I found this information on

Dr. Blomfield

Well I got to go and listen to Dr. Blomfield for a some time to listen to her speak about the women and how they handle many things in Islam Unfortunately I did not get to hear every minute, because we had to leave a few mion. early. The things that drew my attention were these things--that over in Islam, the people over there think that the women in U.S. are bad, like maybe towards porn. That is too bad to see. Also the women are not able to show their heads or faces-they don't wear a scarf but it is like a head cap. When they caome to our countary, they love to have the freedom of religion and to be able to wear what they want. They do not have human rights inm Pakastan so when they come here, they love to see and feel that they have the same rights aas anyone else.
When women had babies, if it was their first and it was a girl, they burried it alive. And men have to pay money to marry the women. ANd they also marry in the family, like first cousins or second cousins. They like to know the person they marry.
Also when they get the divorce, they each get half of everything. But the children go to the fathers side. It goes this though the blood line. And they also can't get the divorce until 3 months and 10 days after they file for it, becuase of the chance of being pregnant.
Women are also allowed to breast feed heir children for 2 years. And when the women make the money, it is all thiers, not the mens. 60% of muslim women have college degrees. And these people came over here for freedom and religous rights.
The women must wear a veil, and everything must be covered. The veil is from the visintein time. They decide every woman should cover, and the reason everyone wears scarfs at times is because of the sand in the wind.
Profit Mohammad had 11-15 wivews, and they were all widows or orphans and one of them was a virgin.
She was very fun to listen to and she showed how the women over there dress. She went to school in California and dressed this way for I believe two years. It was all very interesting.

Monday, March 31, 2008

I have been typing these pages on my computer, and when I send them to this blog page, they are in the 5 paragraphs that I put them on. But when i send them in to be on the blog page, they loose their paragraphs. I don't know why and I am sorry professor, they are all in 5 paragraphs.

HistoricalClothing of Africa

I got some good information from "Notes in Islamic Clothing", Carradocis Miscellany: Notes on Islamic Clothing. The material of their outfits was mainly made of silk. Their shirts and Camus is made of linen found with silk. Robes with tight and loose sleeves; the loose sleeves are short sleaved. The tight sleaved ro, in the early ages, would have sleeves inches llonger thatn their arms. Period pictures show maybe a jacket was worn, and it was open in front with sleeves trimmed in fur. The warb, worn in the Fatimid period, so Mayer says, are beaded in tune with straight slit. Muslim Spain had particolored robes. You can normallty see the slits or buttons on their clothing. There were Turbans worn from the 12th century Egypt. The width's of these were 35 to 48 cms. Non-Muslim were restricted to maximum turban lengths, which maybe meant that the Muslims would wear longer turbans.
Period pictures of Islamic garnets have ornamental bands on the sleeves, triaz bands, which have Arabic inscription with associated decoration. These had cloth worn for the rulers own use. These robes were given away out of generosity. Some wore belts which showed they were ritch. Then the Sultan wore white garmets for the summer which started in May. And then they wore woolen ones in November on until May.
Footware was Khuff boot, long leather stockings with vertuical seams up the sides. The women wore a chemise under a garmet and pants under it. Mameluke women wore Khuff bootts with low shoe outdoors. Red trousers worn on women were signs that they were prostitutes.
So this is basically what they wore for many centuries in Africa. There are still some that will wear this type of clothing. They try to keep their heritage going. They had very fancy and beautiful garmets that they would at times put much brightness and jewels on.

Slaves S

I found just another bit of information on the slaves and when they started. I looked into the Wikipedia page on African Salve Trade. I also went to teh site African Values in the Smithsonian Natural History Web: African Voices. When the slavery started out many centuries ago, peole were put in shekles and forced to aboard ships that were very, very small. Around the 1400's is when this was going on too prett heavily. Europeans colonized to America wheer they had enslaved labor for their mines and plantations. These Africans were brought over in the thousands to be traded off for money, or coins. There was much talk to the African elites to purchase these slaves. These slaves were taken as prisoners of African wars or caught in European-led expeditions. Millions of these slaves fopught for freedom, and weren't able to acheive it. These slaves were vorught from Sahara, tying in to the Arabs slave trade. Then it was just natural to see asalves all over and to be traded and bought. Even though it was illlegal, it was popular all over the world to have slaves, even in Africa itself.There were about 4 million fromthe Red sea, and 4 million through Swahili ports of Indian Ocean. 9 million were brought from trans- aharan route, and 11-13 million from Atlantic Ocean. These people later on were not enslaved for life. They were able to buy themselves out of slavery and even get social promotion. They was also marriage between captor and captive.
There were between 1 million to 1.25 million Europeans captured by Barbary pirates and sold as slaves to N. Africa and Ottomen Empire between the 16 to 19 centuries.
Women were also very sexually abused when they were slaves. They were forced to have sex with their "owners" wenenver the other demanded it. So it was very devasating to see all of the punishment that went on with these people's lives and how they were taken from all of thes different areas and treated as animals.

Friday, March 14, 2008

HIV in Africa

African Cultures
Spring 2008
Professor Mullins
Michelle Ludwig

I found the fight of Aids/HIV in Africa very sad and devastating-just like here in the United States. I found this article on the online page “Focus the Guardian”. The title of the page is “How Legislation can Curb Discrimination Against PLWHA”. this is the discussion of the Aids/HIV virus in Africa and how people are being treated and the need to pass a Bill to stop these people from treating the victims so bad. I find these tragedies very sad and hard to understand how individuals can be so cruel to others.

The Aids/HIV virus is spreading very quickly through Africa. So many people are being affected by this brutal disease. And just like in the United States, many people are accidentally infected with this illness. Now unprotecte4d sex is a huge contributing factor to the reasons that people are being infected with this disease, but someone can also just accidentally touch someone that has Aids/HIV on one of their open cuts with one of their one and they are now most likely infected! Or there are so many other reasons that can cause them to become infected. There is a young woman from Africa that was infected with the virus. Her young son was teased and ridiculed at school and even informed from his teacher that his mom will die soon from this illness. Why do they all need to be so cruel to this woman and her son? She feels that she is totally looked down upon, like she is just a failure in life and has no right to be here. She has a degree and was successful in life, like many others. She has no right to be made fun of, or pushed aside and not to be treated like the others.

The Federal Government is facilitating a bill in National Assembly to get rid of all forms of discrimination. They want to protect human rights and keep privacy on people with Aids/HIV. They should not be seeing any forms of discrimination or stigma at work or any other societal interactions. There are many posters talking of these people that are infected, and it is making them all look very bad. Azimzi from the National Rights Human Rights Commission feels that if it becomes known of these people being infected, that these individuals would be less to care of others and actually intentionally infect other people with this disease. It has been known for people to be thrown out of homes and not allowed in social events because of their illness. Alimazia feels that to pass the Bill, it would have to be presented to the National Assembly and upgrading of NACA into an agency. Some civil society groups feel that all of this may not keep against Aids/HIV. It ahs been said that the Bill has left the office of the Secretary to the Government of the Federation to the Ministry of Justice where it has been submitted to the federal Executive Council to be approved.

hey are trying really hard to make the life a little easier for these people with Aids/HIV. They are trying to pass laws to help stop the discrimination and stigmatization against these people. Hopefully they will help people understand that these people that are infected are all people like the rest of us and they are not any different than the rest of us. Until then, people will still be cruel to these humans and they won’t all have a nice “normal” life.

"What I am"

African Cultures
Spring 2008
Professor Mullins
Michelle Ludwig

Well I found an article on the Africans coming here to the U.S. to take college classes. We will shortly discuss the way it is here for them somewhat and a few of the differences of there schools in Africa. I found this information on the Daily Utah Chronicle, “Group Promotes African Culture” by Jamie Winston. The artuicle was put out on the paper February 16, 2008, but she wrote uit September 28, 2007.

Many college students come here to the United States to learn and get their college degrees. They want to see how things are here-like the living, and ways they deal and feel on different ideas.The African Student Union assists stuents when they come here to the United States. When they arrive here, they are transported from the airport and they are then taken to homes near the campus. They stay with families that are there and willing to help them. There are many students form all over Africa like Burundi, Somalia, and Sudian.

It is really hard to make change in community settings. One person from Africa said that in Africa said that general attitudes there are based around community and Americans general attitudes are individualistic. The cololeges are all so different in their ideas and ways to handle and teach things.

There are also ambassadors invited over here from Niagria and South Africa. They are over here to come to guest lectures. It can also be very hard for an African that is over here in school to see another of their blacks/ Africans on the campus there. It is said that it can be many days if not months before they will see another of their kind.

Wednesday, January 23, 2008

What I am

I am from Independence nd I am going to college for psyshology or counceling of some sort.

Wednesday, January 16, 2008

michelle ludwig

My name is Michelle. I have two beautiful children. I am 36 years old!! I have two dogs.